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Wednesday, 21 March 2018

HOW TO WRITE A PROPOSAL

Writing a good proposal is a critical skill in many occupations, from school to business management to geology. The goal of a proposal is to gain support for your plan by informing the appropriate people. Your ideas or suggestions are more likely to be approved if you can communicate them in a clear, concise, engaging manner. Knowing how to write a persuasive, captivating proposal is essential for success in many fields. There are several types of proposals, such as science proposals and book proposals, but each following the same basic guidelines.


Part 1. Planning your proposal
1
Define your audience. You need to make sure that you think about your audience and what they might already know or not know about your topic before you begin writing. This will help you focus your ideas and present them in the most effective way. It's a good idea to assume that your readers will be busy, reading (or even skimming) in a rush, and not predisposed to grant your ideas any special consideration. 
Efficiency and persuasiveness will be key.
  • Who will be reading your proposal? What level of familiarity with your topic will they have? What might you need to define or give extra background information about?
  • What do you want your audience to get from your proposal? What do you need to give your readers so they can make the decision you want them to make?
  • Refine your tone to meet your audience's expectations and desires. What do they want to hear? What would be the most effective way of getting through to them? How can you help them understand what you're trying to say?


2
Define your issue. It is clear to you what the issue is, but is that also clear to your reader? Also, does your reader believe you really know what you are talking about? You can support your ethos,or writing persona, by using evidence and explanations throughout the proposal to back up your assertions. By setting your issue properly, you start convincing the reader that you are the right person to take care of it. Think about the following when you plan this part:
  • What is the situation this issue applies to?
  • What are the reasons behind this?
  • Are we sure that those, and not others, are the real reasons? How are we sure of it?
  • Has anyone ever tried to deal with this issue before?
  • If yes: has it worked? Why?
  • If no: why not?

DON'T: Write a summary obvious to anyone in the field. 
DO: Show that you've conducted in-depth research and evaluation to understand the issue.

3
Define your solution. This should be straightforward and easy to understand. Once you set the issue you're addressing, how would you like to solve it? Get it as narrow (and doable) as possible

DON'T: Forget to comply with all requirements in the RFP (request for proposal) document.
DO: Go above and beyond the minimum whenever budget allows.

  • Your proposal needs to define a problem and offer a solution that will convince uninterested, skeptical readers to support it.
  •  Your audience may not be the easiest crowd to win over. Is the solution you're offering logical and feasible? What's the timeline for your implementation?
  • Consider thinking about your solution in terms of objectives. Your primary objective is the goal that you absolutely must achieve with your project. Secondary objectives are other goals that you hope your project achieves.
  • Another helpful way of thinking about your solution is in terms of "outcomes" and "deliverables." Outcomes are the quantifiable results of your objectives. For example, if your proposal is for a business project and your objective is "increase profit," an outcome might be "increase profit by $100,000." Deliverables are products or services that you will deliver with your project. For example, a proposal for a science project could "deliver" a vaccine or a new drug. Readers of proposals look for outcomes and deliverables, because they are easy ways of determining what the "worth" of the project will be.

4
Keep elements of style in mind .
Depending on your proposal and who'll be reading it, you need to cater your paper to fit a certain style. What do they expect? Are they interested in your problem?

DON'T: Overuse jargon, obscure abbreviations, or needlessly complex language ( "rectification of a workplace imbalance").
DO: Write in  plain, direct language whenever possible ( " Letting employees go").

  • How are you going to be persuasive? Convincing proposals can use emotional appeals, but should always rely on facts as the bedrock of the argument. For example, a proposal to start a panda conservation program could mention how sad it would be for the children of future generations to never see a panda again, but it shouldn't stop there. It would need to base its argument on facts and solutions for the proposal to be convincing.


5
Make an outline. This will not be part of the final proposal, but it will help you organize your thoughts. Make sure you know all of the relevant details before you start.
  • Your outline should consist of your problem, your solution, how you'll solve it, why your solution is best, and a conclusion. If you're writing an executive proposal, you'll need to include things like a budget analysis and organizational details.

Study this part one as am bringing part two to you tomorrow : 

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